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EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam Part 2 - The Horse Owner's Resource

EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam Part 2

Test your equine knowledge with Part 2 of the EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam--a 10-question Pop Quiz from the editors of EQUUS magazine, covering many aspects of horse health and care.
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As you work your way through this Pop Quiz, you'll find that each question is on its own page. The question is repeated with the corresponding answer on the following page.

Question 1

This time of year you may find yourself spending more on your horse's hair-care products than your own, but are you buying wisely? Test your knowledge of equine beauty treatments by deciding which of the following shampoo-related statements are true and which are false:

1. The amount of suds a shampoo produces is related to its cleaning power.

2. Special purple shampoos highlight white areas by tinting the horse's coat.

3. Frequent shampooing can lead to damage of a horse's coat.

4. Human shampoos are unsafe to use on horses.

Answer on next page >



Question 1

This time of year you may find yourself spending more on your horse's hair-care products than your own, but are you buying wisely? Test your knowledge of equine beauty treatments by deciding which of the following shampoo-related statements are true and which are false:



1.The amount of suds a shampoo produces is related to its cleaning power.

2.Special purple shampoos highlight white areas by tinting the horse's coat.

3.Frequent shampooing can lead to damage of a horse's coat.

4.Human shampoos are unsafe to use on horses.

Answer 1

1.False. Suds and foam, enhanced by boosting agents in commercial formulations, serve no purpose other than to appeal to the person giving the bath.

2.True. Whitening shampoos work by translating the invisible ultraviolet component of sunlight into an imperceptible blue tint. If a horse washed with such a shampoo stands under a fluorescent lamp, his coat has a bluish-green tint, but under natural light the blue tint is neutralized to make the whites look whiter.

3.True. Repeated shampooing can strip a horse's coat of natural oils that help protect the individual hair shafts, leading to brittleness and premature breakage. To minimize the oil-stripping effects of bathing, you can use a coat conditioner after washing.

4.False. In general, equine skin is more sensitive than human skin, but gentle, low-sudsing formulas, such as baby shampoo, can be safely used on most horses. Avoid washing them with detergents meant for dishes, cars, laundry or other inanimate objects.

Question 2 >



Question 2

The word "corn" has dual meanings in the modern horse world. Of course, everyone knows about the energy-dense golden grain--called "maize" in other English-speaking countries--that makes up all or part of many horses' concentrate ration. But what's the other "corn" included in horse talk?

Answer on next page >



Question 2

The word "corn" has dual meanings in the modern horse world. Of course, everyone knows about the energy-dense golden grain--called "maize" in other English-speaking countries--that makes up all or part of many horses' concentrate ration. But what's the other "corn" included in horse talk?

Answer 2

A corn is a bruise on the angle of the hoof's sole, specifically at the juncture of the hoof wall and the bars that parallel the frog.

Corns usually result when shoes are let go too long between resettings. As the hoof grows overlong and the clinches loosen, the branches of the shoe shift onto the bars, causing bruising of the underlying sensitive tissues. Infected corns may need to be drained, but most resolve on their own with proper shoeing technique applied at appropriate intervals.


Question 3 >



Question 3

There's more to life on horseback than walking and trotting. Variations in footfall patterns and timing produce distinct gaits from the same basic four-legged equipment. Can you name the locomotive specialties described below?

1.The only three-beat gait performed by horses is characterized by "leads" that help them maintain their balance through turns.

2.Timing distinguishes this diagonal gait from the trot, in that the forefoot of the pair hits the ground a split second before the hind foot, not simultaneously. The smoothness of the resulting gait allows the horse to cover ground without tiring himself or the rider.

3.This two-beat lateral gait, in which the legs on the same side advance together, may come naturally to the horse or result from training as a racing gait. Horses can travel as fast as 30 miles per hour in this gait.

4.The hallmark of the Icelandic horse, this gait, like the rack, follows the same footfall sequence as the walk but at a much faster speed.

Answer on next page >



Question 3

There's more to life on horseback than walking and trotting. Variations in footfall patterns and timing produce distinct gaits from the same basic four-legged equipment. Can you name the locomotive specialties described below?

1.The only three-beat gait performed by horses is characterized by "leads" that help them maintain their balance through turns.

2.Timing distinguishes this diagonal gait from the trot, in that the forefoot of the pair hits the ground a split second before the hind foot, not simultaneously. The smoothness of the resulting gait allows the horse to cover ground without tiring himself or the rider.

3.This two-beat lateral gait, in which the legs on the same side advance together, may come naturally to the horse or result from training as a racing gait. Horses can travel as fast as 30 miles per hour in this gait.

4.The hallmark of the Icelandic horse, this gait, like the rack, follows the same footfall sequence as the walk but at a much faster speed.

Answer 3

1.Canter

2.Fox-trot

3.Pace

4.Tölt

Question 4 >



Question 4

When disease names are long and unwieldy, they're shortened to a series of letters to simplify medical communications. The practice may make things easier for the initiated, but it may make you wish you had a secret decoder ring. Can you spell out the following disease acronyms and match them with their descriptions?

1.HYPP

2.PSSM

3.SCID

4.EEE

5.EPM

a.Fatal inherited disease in which foals are born without functioning immune systems; a recently developed laboratory test can now identify carriers of the responsible gene.

b.Degenerative neurological disease caused by protozoal damage to the spinal cord and brain; characterized by incoordination and weakness.

c.Heritable condition characterized by muscle spasms and weakness; caused by a gene mutation that increases muscle-membrane permeability and a resulting excess of circulating potassium.

d.One of three related mosquito-borne viral strains that causes inflammation of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord in both horses and people.

e.A form of tying-up common in certain stock-horse and draft breeds; related to high glycogen content and the presence of an abnormal polysaccharide in the muscles.

Answer on next page >



Question 4

When disease names are long and unwieldy, they're shortened to a series of letters to simplify medical communications. The practice may make things easier for the initiated, but it may make you wish you had a secret decoder ring. Can you spell out the following disease acronyms and match them with their descriptions?

1.HYPP

2.PSSM

3.SCID

4.EEE

5.EPM

a.Fatal inherited disease in which foals are born without functioning immune systems; a recently developed laboratory test can now identify carriers of the responsible gene.

b.Degenerative neurological disease caused by protozoal damage to the spinal cord and brain; characterized by incoordination and weakness.

c.Heritable condition characterized by muscle spasms and weakness; caused by a gene mutation that increases muscle-membrane permeability and a resulting excess of circulating potassium.

d.One of three related mosquito-borne viral strains that causes inflammation of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord in both horses and people.

e.A form of tying-up common in certain stock-horse and draft breeds; related to high glycogen content and the presence of an abnormal polysaccharide in the muscles.

Answer 4

1.Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: C

2.Polysaccharide storage myopathy: E

3.Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome: A

4.Eastern equine encephalomyelitis: D

5.Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: B

Question 5 >



Question 5

When veterinarians need help in assessing a horse's health problem, they can turn to a battery of sophisticated diagnostic tools adapted from human medicine. Can you name the diagnostic imaging procedures described below?

1.Reveals the size and shape of dense internal structures, primarily bone: Radiation passing through the structures varies according to tissue density, producing film images ranging from black to light gray.

2.Detects areas of inflammation or necrosis in bone and soft tissue: Radioactive material injected into the body collects in "hot" spots of increased circulation or bypasses areas of decreased circulation, which become apparent in images taken by a special gamma camera.

3.Useful for imaging most body tissues, from bone to internal organs or fetuses: The echoes produced by sound waves as they bounce off or pass through internal structures are the basis of still or moving images.

4.Pinpoints areas of increased or decreased circulation in surface tissues: A special camera measures the amount of heat radiating off the body surface as a means of identifying areas of inflammation and necrosis.

5.Provides up-close, real-time views of internal structures: A tiny camera at the end of a fiber-optic tube is inserted into a natural or surgical body opening to relay images to an external eyepiece or monitor. It is as useful in surgery as for diagnostics.

Answer on next page >



Question 5

When veterinarians need help in assessing a horse's health problem, they can turn to a battery of sophisticated diagnostic tools adapted from human medicine. Can you name the diagnostic imaging procedures described below?

1.Reveals the size and shape of dense internal structures, primarily bone: Radiation passing through the structures varies according to tissue density, producing film images ranging from black to light gray.

2.Detects areas of inflammation or necrosis in bone and soft tissue: Radioactive material injected into the body collects in "hot" spots of increased circulation or bypasses areas of decreased circulation, which become apparent in images taken by a special gamma camera.

3.Useful for imaging most body tissues, from bone to internal organs or fetuses: The echoes produced by sound waves as they bounce off or pass through internal structures are the basis of still or moving images.

4.Pinpoints areas of increased or decreased circulation in surface tissues: A special camera measures the amount of heat radiating off the body surface as a means of identifying areas of inflammation and necrosis.

5.Provides up-close, real-time views of internal structures: A tiny camera at the end of a fiber-optic tube is inserted into a natural or surgical body opening to relay images to an external eyepiece or monitor. It is as useful in surgery as for diagnostics.

Answer 5

1.Radiography

2.Scintigraphy

3.Ultrasonography

4.Thermography

5.Endoscopy

Question 6 >



Question 6

"E" may be the hippest letter of all these days. From "E-mail" to "eBay," the fifth letter of the alphabet has come to be a high-tech icon. But harkening back to pre-Internet days when the vowel was but a humble workhorse of the alphabetic world, can you identify the appropriate "e-words" for the following horsey objects or concepts?

1.Horseshoe with an outwardly curved bar connecting its branches to support the horse's heels and fetlock

2.Conformation fault in which the neck appears to be "upside down"; instead of arching, the neck dips

3.The horny growth on the underside of the fetlock, similar to the chestnut farther up the leg

4.Oldest known ancestor of the horse; lived during the Eocene epoch 55 million years ago

Answer on next page >



Question 6

"E" may be the hippest letter of all these days. From "E-mail" to "eBay," the fifth letter of the alphabet has come to be a high-tech icon. But harkening back to pre-Internet days when the vowel was but a humble workhorse of the alphabetic world, can you identify the appropriate "e-words" for the following horsey objects or concepts?

1.Horseshoe with an outwardly curved bar connecting its branches to support the horse's heels and fetlock

2.Conformation fault in which the neck appears to be "upside down"; instead of arching, the neck dips

3.The horny growth on the underside of the fetlock, similar to the chestnut farther up the leg

4.Oldest known ancestor of the horse; lived during the Eocene epoch 55 million years ago

Answer 6

1.Egg-bar shoe

2.Ewe-neck

3.Ergot

4.Eohippus (recently renamed Hyracotherium)

Question 7 >



Question 7

As a wound heals, granulation tissue temporarily fills in the injured area. Occasionally, too much granulation tissue develops; this "proud flesh" prevents the wound from closing and inhibits further healing. Certain types of wounds are particularly prone to the formation of proud flesh. Keeping a close eye on suspect lesions can help you detect and treat the problem early. Rank the following wounds in order from the "most likely" to the "least likely" to produce proud flesh:

1.A small cut just below the eye

2.A rope burn around the pastern

3.A cut from barbed wire across the chest

4.A puncture wound on the gaskin

Answer on next page >



Question 7

As a wound heals, granulation tissue temporarily fills in the injured area. Occasionally, too much granulation tissue develops; this "proud flesh" prevents the wound from closing and inhibits further healing. Certain types of wounds are particularly prone to the formation of proud flesh. Keeping a close eye on suspect lesions can help you detect and treat the problem early. Rank the following wounds in order from the "most likely" to the "least likely" to produce proud flesh:

1.A small cut just below the eye

2.A rope burn around the pastern

3.A cut from barbed wire across the chest

4.A puncture wound on the gaskin

Answer 7

1.B

2.C

3.D

4.A

Although no one knows exactly what causes proud flesh, it is much more common in contaminated wounds and in those that occur below the level of the heart. A small cut just below the eyes would thus be very unlikely to develop proud flesh, while a rope burn on the pastern is almost guaranteed to develop some. The granulation tissue may become so excessive that it interferes with a horse's use, so it is wise to call your veterinarian if you suspect it is developing. Your veterinarian can prevent and treat proud flesh through medication, thorough cleaning of wounds, excision and careful bandaging.

(Note: Sarcoids, which resemble proud flesh, may develop on a healing wound regardless of location. A biopsy can provide an accurate diagnosis.)

Question 8 >



Question 8

The skeletal muscles that support your horse and keep him on the move account for approximately 45 percent of his body weight. Let's see how much you know about equine muscles. Excluding the back muscles, which of the following (a, b or c) is your horse's (1) longest muscle? (2) Widest muscle? (3) Largest muscle?

a.The gluteus medius, over the rump

b.The brachiocephalicus, along the side of the neck

c.The serratus ventralis, under the shoulder blade

Answer on next page >



Question 8

The skeletal muscles that support your horse and keep him on the move account for approximately 45 percent of his body weight. Let's see how much you know about equine muscles. Excluding the back muscles, which of the following (a, b or c) is your horse's (1) longest muscle? (2) Widest muscle? (3) Largest muscle?

a.The gluteus medius, over the rump

b.The brachiocephalicus, along the side of the neck

c.The serratus ventralis, under the shoulder blade

Answer 8

1.B. The lengthy brachiocephalicus runs from just behind the poll, along the length of the neck, to attach at the side of the shoulder. This muscle's distinct straplike appearance is particularly apparent when your horse stretches out at the gallop.

2.C. Leaving aside the back-muscle complex, the serratus ventralis is the widest of the horse's muscles, fanning downward from the top of the shoulder blade to the ribs, to form the sling that supports your horse's front end.

3.A. A primary producer of forward motion, the gluteus medius makes up the rump from loin to hip joint, making it the largest muscle.

Question 9 >





Question 9

Of all the shades in the equine coat-color palette, a palomino the color of newly minted gold is among the most striking. Mating two horses to produce the eye-catching hue can be tricky, however, because the coloring is a heterozygous trait--meaning that palominos carry two different color genes, one of which is usually dominant over the other. Breeding palomino to palomino produces a palomino foal half of the time. But if no like-colored stallion is available for your palomino mare, which sire is most likely to produce the desired result?

1.A bay

2.A chestnut

3.A black

Answer on next page >



Question 9

Of all the shades in the equine coat-color palette, a palomino the color of newly minted gold is among the most striking. Mating two horses to produce the eye-catching hue can be tricky, however, because the coloring is a heterozygous trait--meaning that palominos carry two different color genes, one of which is usually dominant over the other. Breeding palomino to palomino produces a palomino foal half of the time. But if no like-colored stallion is available for your palomino mare, which sire is most likely to produce the desired result?

1.A bay

2.A chestnut

3.A black

Answer 9

2 (a chestnut). Breeding to the chestnut stallion will also produce a palomino foal 50 percent of the time; the remaining foals will be chestnut. Non-palomino foals of a palomino stallion will be split between chestnut and cream. Incidentally, the brighter the chestnut stallion, the more golden his palomino foals will be.

Predicting the offspring of a palomino and a bay or a black is very difficult. Buckskin is the most likely result, but the color depends entirely on the genes carried by the bay or black horse.

Question 10 >



Question 10

Your horse's energy needs fluctuate with his age, environment and occupation. Excess energy intake is stored as fat, while energy shortage leads to weight loss and lethargy. Good-quality pasture or hay provides enough energy for most pleasure mounts, but at times a horse's needs can't be met by roughage alone. In particular, lactating mares, growing youngsters and older horses in cold climates may need supplemental energy in their diets.

Which of the following feed items contains the most energy per pound?

1.Corn

2.Sweetfeed

3.Alfalfa hay

4.Vegetable oil

5.Oats

Answer on next page >



Question 10

Your horse's energy needs fluctuate with his age, environment and occupation. Excess energy intake is stored as fat, while energy shortage leads to weight loss and lethargy. Good-quality pasture or hay provides enough energy for most pleasure mounts, but at times a horse's needs can't be met by roughage alone. In particular, lactating mares, growing youngsters and older horses in cold climates may need supplemental energy in their diets.

Which of the following feed items contains the most energy per pound?

1.Corn

2.Sweetfeed

3.Alfalfa hay

4.Vegetable oil

5.Oats

Answer 10

#4 (vegetable oil). Vegetable oil is the most energy-dense of the five feeds, delivering a whopping 4.08 megacalories per pound. The next-richest energy source is corn, which provides 1.54 megacalories per pound. Adding a cup (eight ounces) of vegetable oil to your horse's grain is a simple, inexpensive way to boost his energy intake with minimum risk.

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