EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam Part 1

Test your equine knowledge with Part 1 of the EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam--a 10-question Pop Quiz from the editors of EQUUS magazine, covering many aspects of horse health and care.
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Each question is on its own page. The question is repeated on the next page, along with the corresponding answer.

Question 1



What does blepharospasm indicate about a horse?

Answer on next page.

Question 1

What does blepharospasm indicate about a horse?



Answer 1

It means he is squeezing his eyelids shut, typically in response to pain in or near the eye. It is a very common sign of uveitis, particularly in bright sunlight or direct flashlight illumination.

Question 2 >

Question 2



Where on a horse's body are the vascular groove, jugular groove and Galvayne's groove found?

Answer on next page.

Question 2
Where on a horse's body are the vascular groove, jugular groove and Galvayne's groove found?



Answer 2

  • Vascular groove: Located on the head, just in front of the jowls toward the underside of the chin, it serves as a protective trench for the main arteries of the face.
  • Jugular groove: Found along the underside of the neck, from the jaw to the shoulder, it is the site of the jugular vein.
  • Galvayne's groove: This dark-colored stripe runs down the outer surface of the upper third (corner) incisor. It appears near the gum line when a horse is about 10 years old, reaches halfway down the tooth when he is approximately 15 and extends the full length by the time he is 20. Then it gradually disappears, from the top down, by the time he is 30.

Question 3 >

Question 3

Veterinary terminology may seem complex. But many words offer clues to their definition. The four examples that follow are prefixes derived from Latin. Pair them with their meanings.




1. Hyper (as in hyperthermia)

2. Hypo (as in hypoxemia)

3. Osteo (as in osteopenia)

4. Pneumo (as in pneumonitis)





a.Below or less than normal

b.Involving the respiratory system

c.Over, above or beyond

d.Involving bone




Answer on next page.



Question 3

Veterinary terminology may seem complex. But many words offer clues to their definition. The four examples that follow are prefixes derived from Latin. Pair them with their meanings.




1. Hyper (as in hyperthermia)

2. Hypo (as in hypoxemia)

3. Osteo (as in osteopenia)

4. Pneumo (as in pneumonitis)





a.Below or less than normal

b.Involving the respiratory system

c.Over, above or beyond

d.Involving bone




Answer 3

1. C. Hyperthermia is abnormally high body temperature

2. A. Hypoxemia is insufficient oxygen in the blood

3. D. Osteopenia is loss of bone calcium

4. B. Pneumonitis is inflammation of the lungs

Question 4 >

Question 4



Which bone in a horse's body is named for its nautical shape?

Answer on next page.



Question 4

Which bone in a horse's body is named for its nautical shape?

Answer 4

The navicular bone, the smallest bone of the foot. The term comes from the Latin for "like a little boat" (navi- means "boat," -cul- means "little" and -ar means "like"). The resemblance is most evident when the bone is viewed from the top.

Question 5 >

Question 5



You think you know your horse inside and out? Where are the following anatomical structures found on horses--beneath the surface or out in the open?

1.Corpora nigra

2.Ergot

3.Umbilicus

4.Scalenus

Answer on next page.



Question 5



You think you know your horse inside and out? Where are the following anatomical structures found on horses--beneath the surface or out in the open?



1.Corpora nigra

2.Ergot

3.Umbilicus

4.Scalenus

Answer 5

1.Inside. The corpora nigra is the awning-like projection of the iris within the eyeball. It is suspended over the upper edge of the pupil to shield the retina from excessive light.

2.Outside. Ergots are the horny growths on the backs of the fetlocks.

3.Outside. The umbilicus is the proper word for belly button, or navel, the scar left where the cord connected the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus. A horse's umbilicus is palpable on the midline, just in front of a male's sheath and a hand's breadth in front of a mare's udder.

4.Inside. The scalenus muscle on the underside of the neck is a key player in a horse's "telescoping" or reaching movements.

Question 6 >

Question 6

Inside, outside, top and bottom: These everyday identifiers of locations on living topography aren't precise enough for medical work. Instead, health professionals use specialized terms to identify anatomical locations. Would you know which direction to look for a wound on your horse's leg if it were described by one of the following terms?



1.Medial

2.Lateral

3.Proximal

4.Distal

Answer on next page.



Question 6

Inside, outside, top and bottom: These everyday identifiers of locations on living topography aren't precise enough for medical work. Instead, health professionals use specialized terms to identify anatomical locations. Would you know which direction to look for a wound on your horse's leg if it were described by one of the following terms?



1.Medial

2.Lateral

3.Proximal

4.Distal

Answer 6

1.Medial: In the direction of or extending to the midline or center of the body. Your horse's chestnut is on the medial aspect of his foreleg.

2.Lateral: Toward the side; away from the animal's centerline. A cut on the outside of the fetlock is described as being on the lateral face of the joint.

3.Proximal: Nearer to the center of the animal; used when comparing two locations. The chestnut is proximal to the knee.

4.Distal: Farther from the center of the animal; used when comparing two locations. The hoof is distal to the fetlock.

Question 7 >

Question 7

You've just moved your mare to a new boarding barn, and everything seemed fine until she developed two identical sores in the hollows of her hocks. She seems healthy and sound in all other respects, but the sores have persisted and grown worse even after weeks of treatment with antibiotic cream. What's going on here?

Answer on next page.



Question 7

You've just moved your mare to a new boarding barn, and everything seemed fine until she developed two identical sores in the hollows of her hocks. She seems healthy and sound in all other respects, but the sores have persisted and grown worse even after weeks of treatment with antibiotic cream. What's going on here?

Answer 7

In all likelihood, the sores on your mare's hocks are caused by her lying down on and rising from abrasive ground. When she lies with her hind legs flexed beneath her, the skin that normally rests in the hollow of her hock moves forward to cover the collateral ligament. Pressure from her weight can damage this skin. Then, as she rises, the skin can be rubbed raw as it moves in contact with the ground. With your mare standing, flex her hind leg as tightly as possible, and you'll notice the sores shifting from the hollow to the side of the hock.

The "treatment" is a less abrasive bed: rubber matting, deeper bedding or an improved paddock surface. You might also try protecting the wounded area with neoprene hock boots, but they're easily shifted out of place, so you'll need to keep close watch on them.

Question 8 >

Question 8

If you put your mind on idle during daily stall cleaning, you might miss out on critical health information concerning your horses. The color and consistency of the stuff your pitching reveals the dietary and intestinal condition of its producers. What can you conclude about the health of the "manufacturers" of the following piles?




1.Vivid green, sloppy manure without discernible, individual segments that looks like a "cow pie."

2.Dry, hard manure balls that smash into many smaller pieces when they hit the ground.

3.Manure that appears to be nothing but short hay stems and other fibrous material.

Answer on next page.



Question 8

If you put your mind on idle during daily stall cleaning, you might miss out on critical health information concerning your horses. The color and consistency of the stuff your pitching reveals the dietary and intestinal condition of its producers. What can you conclude about the health of the "manufacturers" of the following piles?




1.Vivid green, sloppy manure without discernible, individual segments that looks like a "cow pie."

2.Dry, hard manure balls that smash into many smaller pieces when they hit the ground.

3.Manure that appears to be nothing but short hay stems and other fibrous material.

Answer 8

1.This horse has been feasting on lush new grass. Young grasses are mostly water, and the sloppy stools reflect this excessive moisture intake. Once the horse's intestinal tract adjusts to the grassy diet, the manure will regain some shape, though probably remaining on the soft side until the roughage grows old and fibrous. If the diarrhea persists or is not linked to a dietary change, a veterinary examination is in order.


2.Hard, dry manure can be a sign of dehydration. Check the horse for other indications of insufficient systemic fluids by performing a pinch test on the point of his shoulder. If the skin doesn't snap back immediately, he's running dry internally.


Also, see if the horse's mucous membranes appear dry and dull. Offer the horse unlimited water around the clock, and consult with your veterinarian if he doesn't seem interested in drinking it.


3.A roughage ration consisting only of coarse hay produces highly fibrous manure at the other end. Overly mature hay plants contain indigestible fibers that pass on through essentially unprocessed. If you're suddenly seeing more fibrous manure than usual coming from your horse without a corresponding dietary change, a checkup may be in order, particularly of his teeth.

Question 9 >

Question 9

Q. Most horse owners feed their horses "by the scoop" for convenience, not "by the pound" as equine nutritionists recommend. Feeding by volume, which is what you're doing when you think of a ration as "one scoop of sweet feed and two of oats," can lead to overfeeding due to the differing weights of common concentrates. Do you know how many pounds of the following feeds your one-quart coffee-can scoop holds?

1.Whole oats

2.Pelleted grain mix

3.Wheat bran

4.Corn

Answer on next page.



Question 9

Q. Most horse owners feed their horses "by the scoop" for convenience, not "by the pound" as equine nutritionists recommend. Feeding by volume, which is what you're doing when you think of a ration as "one scoop of sweet feed and two of oats," can lead to overfeeding due to the differing weights of common concentrates. Do you know how many pounds of the following feeds your one-quart coffee-can scoop holds?



1.Whole oats

2.Pelleted grain mix

3.Wheat bran

4.Corn

Answer 9



1.Oats = 2 pounds

2.Pelleted grain mix = 2 ? pounds

3.Wheat bran = 1 pound

4.Corn = 3 ? pounds

With such a range of weights, one scoop of this is hardly equivalent to one scoop of that, but scoop measures can easily be converted to a weight-based ration. Simply use a kitchen scale to determine the exact poundage of each feed type contained in your regular scoop, and adjust the volume in the daily feedings to match feeding-by-weight recommendations.

For example, if you're to feed five pounds of a pelleted feed per meal, you'll scoop up a bit more than 1 ? quart coffee cans full. You won't need to weigh your scooped rations again unless you change feeds or scoops.

Question 10 >

Question 10

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), commonly called heaves, is a serious allergy-induced respiratory disorder. Left untreated, RAO worsens progressively, making breathing more and more of a struggle for the horse, even when he's standing still. Which of the following options is considered the most effective RAO treatment?

1.Wetting the horse's hay

2.Medication, such as inhaled steroids

3.Keeping the horse outdoors 24 hours a day on pasture only

4.Progressive exercise to strengthen the lungs

Answer on next page.



Question 10

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), commonly called heaves, is a serious allergy-induced respiratory disorder. Left untreated, RAO worsens progressively, making breathing more and more of a struggle for the horse, even when he's standing still. Which of the following options is considered the most effective RAO treatment?



1.Wetting the horse's hay

2.Medication, such as inhaled steroids

3.Keeping the horse outdoors 24 hours a day on pasture only

4.Progressive exercise to strengthen the lungs

Answer 10

3. Permanently removing heavey horses from indoor barn environments is the most reliable and effective treatment for RAO. Continuous turnout with a diet consisting of grass only or dust-free hay cubes has been proven more effective than nearly every medication regimen, including steroids.

Wetting a horse's hay is a traditional horseman's treatment, but it's likely to help only those horses with very mild coughs resulting from temporary irritation and has little effect on RAO sufferers.

Mild exercise will improve the breathing of heavey horses while they're moving, but too much activity can worsen their conditions.

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