EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam Part 8

Test your equine knowledge with Part 8 of the EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam--a 10-question Pop Quiz from the editors of EQUUS magazine, covering many aspects of horse health and care.
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Each question in this Pop Quiz is on its own page. The question is repeated with the corresponding answer on the following page.

Question 1

Your horse had nearly identical sores on the bony protrusion on the outside of each hock. How did he get them?

Answer on next page >



Question 1

Your horse had nearly identical sores on the bony protrusion on the outside of each hock. How did he get them?

Answer 1

These sores are abrasions caused when a horse lies down on and rises from a hard surface. They are a sign that his stall needs more bedding or your mats have lost their cushion. When outdoors, horses typically lie in spots with ample grass or softer soil to avoid such injuries.

Question 2 >



Question 2

Which of the following is not a play behavior in horses?

a.Lifting the tail over the back while trotting or galloping

b.Arching the neck and "blowing"

c.Backing toward another horse or human, hindquarters first

d.Pawing

Answer on next page >



Question 2

Which of the following is not a play behavior in horses?

a.Lifting the tail over the back while trotting or galloping

b.Arching the neck and "blowing"

c.Backing toward another horse or human, hindquarters first

d.Pawing

Answer 2

C. A horse who is presenting his hindquarters in this manner is never playing--this signals his intention to kick. Horses at play do not kick at each other. In a herd, kicking is used as discipline and to establish hierarchy. A horse who kicks or adopts a kicking posture toward people does so as an act of defiance or defense.

Question 3 >



Question 3

Which of the following is not a term used to describe respiratory noises in horses:

a.Roaring

b.Whistling

c.Growling

d.Gurgling

Answer on next page >



Question 3

Which of the following is not a term used to describe respiratory noises in horses:

a.Roaring

b.Whistling

c.Growling

d.Gurgling

Answer 3

C.Roaring and whistling are used to describe the noise typically made by a horse with laryngeal hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the larynx). Gurgling is the term often used to describe the sound produced by horses with dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). Growling might be heard from a barn dog, but never a horse.

Question 4 >



Question 4

True or False: A very thirsty horse will not eat, even if he is extremely hungry.

Answer on next page >



Question 4

True or False: A very thirsty horse will not eat, even if he is extremely hungry.

Answer 4

True. As a physiological drive, thirst is much stronger than hunger. A horse who is very thirsty will forgo food until he can have water. Not only does this focus his attention where it's needed, but it keeps the horse from worsening his dehydration by drawing on internal fluid reserves for digestion.

Question 5 >



Question 5

The suffix "-itis" means inflammation in veterinary and medical parlance. Can you tell which part of the body is inflamed in each of these conditions?

a.Laminitis

b.Uveitis

c.Thrombophlebitis

d.Myeloencephalitis

Answer on next page >



Question 5

The suffix "-itis" means inflammation in veterinary and medical parlance. Can you tell which part of the body is inflamed in each of these conditions?

a.Laminitis

b.Uveitis

c.Thrombophlebitis

d.Myeloencephalitis

Answer 5

a.The sensitive laminar tissue of the hooves. Laminitis is caused by carbohydrate overload, insulin resistance, mechanical stress or systemic disease.

b.The uvea, the colored portion of the eye. Uveitis can result from autoimmune reaction or trauma.

c.A vein. Sometimes caused by an injection, thrombophlebitis typically is accompanied by the formation of a blood clot.

d.The brain and spinal cord. Myeloencephalitis can be caused by a variety of conditions such as protozoa in the case of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM).

Question 6 >



Question 6

Where on a horse would you find a jibbah?

a.Between the large and small intestine

b.On the face

c.Hidden in the hair behind the fetlock

d.In the mouth

Answer on next page >



Question 6

Where on a horse would you find a jibbah?

a.Between the large and small intestine

b.On the face

c.Hidden in the hair behind the fetlock

d.In the mouth

Answer 6

B. The jibbah is the bulge of the forehead found on some Arabian horses.

Question 7 >



Question 7

Refined by eons of evolution, certain equine behaviors are irresistible to even the most individualistic horses. If you were suddenly made a member of the species, would you know these rules?

1.When it's time for the herd to get a drink or begin grazing in a new area, who initiates the move?

1.a.The hungriest or thirstiest horse

1.b.A mare

1.c.The oldest herd member

1.d.The stallion

2. What statement best sums up a horse's philosophy on the unfamiliar?

2.a."Nothing ventured, nothing gained"

2.b."Change is good"

2.c."Run now; ask questions later"

2.d."If I can't see it, it won't hurt me"

3.Which of the following reveals a horse's mood?

3.a.Ears

3.b.Tail

3.c.Neck

3.d.All of the above

Answer on next page >



Question 7

Refined by eons of evolution, certain equine behaviors are irresistible to even the most individualistic horses. If you were suddenly made a member of the species, would you know these rules?

1. When it's time for the herd to get a drink or begin grazing in a new area, who initiates the move?

1.a.The hungriest or thirstiest horse

1.b.A mare

1.c.The oldest herd member

1.d.The stallion

2. What statement best sums up a horse's philosophy on the unfamiliar?

2.a."Nothing ventured, nothing gained"

2.b."Change is good"

2.c."Run now; ask questions later"

2.d."If I can't see it, it won't hurt me"

3.Which of the following reveals a horse's mood?

3.a.Ears

3.b.Tail

3.c.Neck

3.d.All of the above

Answer 7

1.B. In all established herds, a dominant "alpha" mare makes the decisions regarding grazing, water seeking, herd movement and even foal rearing. The stallion's role is limited to protection and procreation.

2.C. Horses instinctively flee anything frightening or unfamiliar. From a safe distance they then assess the situation. Fortunately for us, this flight instinct can be controlled with training.

3.D. Horses use their ears (pinned back, relaxed at half-mast or pricked forward), tail (clamped, switching or raised) and neck (arched, upheld or "snaked") to broadcast their emotional state and intentions.

Question 8 >



Question 8

They're small and unobtrusive, but the glands of the endocrine system control all of life's essentials. Can you identify this trio of hard-working mystery glands?

1.I'm nestled just below your horse's brain, and my name derives from the Latin word for phlegm, though I have nothing to do with that sticky stuff. I am the master controller behind growth, reproduction, circulation and kidney function. If I become overactive in older horses, they grow obese, cranky and exceptionally hairy, even in summer. Who am I?

2.We two sit next to the kidneys and produce the "stress hormone" associated with "fight or flight." Long-term corticosteroid administration causes us to shrivel with disuse. Anhidrosis, the inability to sweat, is one of the abnormal conditions that may arise from our malfunction. Who are we?

3.I'm the only gland accessible to the touch: My two lobes surround the windpipe, just behind the larynx. My hormones affect nearly all systems, and I rarely get diseased. However, an excess or deficiency of dietary iodine can cause me to enlarge in a condition called goiter. Who am I?

Answer on next page >



Question 8

They're small and unobtrusive, but the glands of the endocrine system control all of life's essentials. Can you identify this trio of hard-working mystery glands?

1.I'm nestled just below your horse's brain, and my name derives from the Latin word for phlegm, though I have nothing to do with that sticky stuff. I am the master controller behind growth, reproduction, circulation and kidney function. If I become overactive in older horses, they grow obese, cranky and exceptionally hairy, even in summer. Who am I?

2.We two sit next to the kidneys and produce the "stress hormone" associated with "fight or flight." Long-term corticosteroid administration causes us to shrivel with disuse. Anhidrosis, the inability to sweat, is one of the abnormal conditions that may arise from our malfunction. Who are we?

3.I'm the only gland accessible to the touch: My two lobes surround the windpipe, just behind the larynx. My hormones affect nearly all systems, and I rarely get diseased. However, an excess or deficiency of dietary iodine can cause me to enlarge in a condition called goiter. Who am I?

Answer 8

1.The pituitary gland

2.The adrenal glands

3.The thyroid gland

Question 9 >



Question 9

Even foals who are months from making their much-anticipated appearances do their part to prepare for their debut into the larger world. How much do you know of life inside the equine uterus?

1. The first movements made by an equine fetus are

1.a.Head nods

1.b.Leg motions

1.c.Tail twitches

2. The foal spends the last three months of gestation mostly

2.a.On his side

2.b.On his stomach with his legs folded beneath him

2.c.On his back

3. A foal develops and grows right up until delivery. His birth size is determined primarily by

3.a.The nutrition of the mare

3.b.The size of the mare

3.c.Genetics

Answer on next page >



Question 9

Even foals who are months from making their much-anticipated appearances do their part to prepare for their debut into the larger world. How much do you know of life inside the equine uterus?

1. The first movements made by an equine fetus are

1.a.Head nods

1.b.Leg motions

1.c.Tail twitches

2. The foal spends the last three months of gestation mostly

2.a.On his side

2.b.On his stomach with his legs folded beneath him

2.c.On his back

3. A foal develops and grows right up until delivery. His birth size is determined primarily by

3.a.The nutrition of the mare

3.b.The size of the mare

3.c.Genetics

Answer 9

1.A. Fetuses begin to make head-nodding motions about 40 days after conception. As they develop, they progress to chewing motions, tail twitches and leg movements. The latter so closely resemble gaits that some researchers speculate the neuromuscular system is actually "practicing" for life outside the womb.

2.C. After many very active weeks earlier in gestation, the fetus settles into position lying on his back with his head aimed toward the birth canal at an incline of exactly 40 degrees. (One researcher found that placing minutes-old foals in the same position induces a tranquil sleeplike state in them.) During the birthing process, the fetus twists into position to emerge stomach down.

3.B. Before birth, foals grow as large as their surroundings allow. Once on the ground, genetics take over. In a British experiment, Shetland ponies were crossed with Shire horses. The foals born to the Shetland mares were slightly larger than a typical purebred Shetland foal and the foals born to Shire mares were slightly smaller than the average Shire foal, and the two groups were considerably different in size from each other. Within a few months, the size differences imposed by gestation spaces had evened out, and the foals were of approximately equal height.

Question 10 >



Question 10

Most of the colorful descriptions used to depict horses' less-than-perfect conformation draw comparisons with other animals. Can you visualize and recognize the conformational deficiencies identified by the following terms?

1.Coon-footed

2.Goose-rumped

3.Pig-eyed

4.Herring-gutted

5.Cow-hocked

6.Cat-hammed

Answer on next page >



Question 10

Most of the colorful descriptions used to depict horses' less-than-perfect conformation draw comparisons with other animals. Can you visualize and recognize the conformational deficiencies identified by the following terms?

1.Coon-footed

2.Goose-rumped

3.Pig-eyed

4.Herring-gutted

5.Cow-hocked

6.Cat-hammed

Answer 10

1.A coon-footed horse has low pasterns and shallow heels.

2.A horse who is goose-rumped has a short, steep croup.

3.Pig-eyed refers to a horse with small, narrow, squinty eyes.

4.A horse with a very narrow waist is said to be herring-gutted or wasp-waisted.

5.A cow-hocked horse stands with the points of the hocks turned inward and the toes of the hind hooves aimed outward.

6.A horse is called cat-hammed if he has long, relatively thin thighs and weak-looking hind legs.

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