Officials have confirmed two strangles cases in Nassau County, Florida, and Cattaraugus County, New York.
On Aug. 12, the Florida Department Agriculture and Consumer Services confirmed a 24-year-old Paint/Arabian cross in Nassau County positive for strangles. He presented with dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (difficulty breathing) and guttural pouch chondroids on Aug. 10 and is now deceased. The affected farm is under official quarantine, and five horses were exposed. This marks the 41st confirmed strangles case in Florida in 2022.
On Aug. 15, the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets confirmed one horse positive for strangles in Cattaraugus County, New York. The NY Last Chance Horse Bail-Out in Allegany, where the horse resides, is under official quarantine, with two horses suspected positive and 25 exposed.
EDCC Health Watch is an Equine Network marketing program that utilizes information from the Equine Disease Communication Center (EDCC) to create and disseminate verified equine disease reports. The EDCC is an independent nonprofit organization that is supported by industry donations in order to provide open access to infectious disease information.
Strangles in horses is an infection caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and spread through direct contact with other equids or contaminated surfaces. Horses that aren’t showing clinical signs can harbor and spread the bacteria, and recovered horses remain contagious for at least six weeks, with the potential to cause outbreaks long-term.
Infected horses can exhibit a variety of clinical signs:
- Swollen and/or abscessed lymph nodes
- Nasal discharge
- Coughing or wheezing
- Muscle swelling
- Difficulty swallowing
Veterinarians diagnose horses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with either a nasal swab, wash or an abscess sample, and they treat most cases based on clinical signs, implementing antibiotics for severe cases. Overuse of antibiotics can prevent an infected horse from developing immunity. Most horses make a full recovery in three to four weeks.
A vaccine is available but not always effective. Biosecurity measures of quarantining new horses at a facility and maintaining high standards of hygiene and disinfecting surfaces can help lower the risk of outbreak or contain one when it occurs.