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EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam Part 6 - The Horse Owner's Resource

EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam Part 6

Test your equine knowledge with Part 6 of the EQUUS: Hands On Pop Quiz Final Exam--a 10-question Pop Quiz from the editors of EQUUS magazine, covering many aspects of horse health and care.
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As you work your way through this Pop Quiz, you'll find that each question is on its own page. The question is repeated with the corresponding answer on the following page.

Question 1

Tendons connect muscle to bone, transmitting muscular effort into skeletal motion. Normally, these dense bands of fibrous connective tissues are plenty strong enough to withstand the loading of each stride. But injured tendons do not heal well. Inflammation subsides slowly ad scarring proliferates, leading to permanent lameness. A rider's choice of riding techniques and conditions can have critical effects on tendon health. Which of the following situations raise(s) the risk for tendon injury?

a.Sudden increase in performance demand

b.Uneven footing

c.Deep or muddy footing

d.Sudden, jolting stops

Answer on next page >



Question 1

Tendons connect muscle to bone, transmitting muscular effort into skeletal motion. Normally, these dense bands of fibrous connective tissues are plenty strong enough to withstand the loading of each stride. But injured tendons do not heal well. Inflammation subsides slowly ad scarring proliferates, leading to permanent lameness. A rider's choice of riding techniques and conditions can have critical effects on tendon health. Which of the following situations raise(s) the risk for tendon injury?

a.Sudden increase in performance demand

b.Uneven footing

c.Deep or muddy footing

d.Sudden, jolting stops

Answer 1

All of the above. Tendons not sufficiently strengthened by progressive training are unable to withstand upward leaps in work demand. Uneven footing sets the stage for missteps, while deep going greatly increases the workload of the tendons. Finally, hard, jolting stops override the limbs' shock-absorbing system to the detriment of the tendons. Whatever the specific source of the strain may be, the breakdown of tendon fibers and resulting inflammation are the common causes of tendon failure.

Question 2 >



Question 2

Remember those gut-wrenching Saturday mornings when you sweated over Scholastic Aptitude Tests? Here's your chance to revisit the SAT-style analogy questions, but this time with horse-related information that's bound to earn you a perfect score. Choose the word that best completes the following statements:

1.Colt is to stallion as filly is to

1.a.Gelding

1.b.Mare

1.c.Pony

1.d.Foal

2.Stifle is to knee as hock is to

2.a.Toe

2.b.Hamstring

2.c.Ankle

2.d.Hip

3.Hay is to fiber as grain is to

3.a.Starch

3.b.Vitamins

�� 3.c.Growth

3.d.Calories

4.Pawing is to colic as squinting is to

4.a.Bright light

4.b.Blindness

4.c.Cataracts

4.d.Eye Pain

Answer on next page >



Question 2

Remember those gut-wrenching Saturday mornings when you sweated over Scholastic Aptitude Tests? Here's your chance to revisit the SAT-style analogy questions, but this time with horse-related information that's bound to earn you a perfect score. Choose the word that best completes the following statements:

1.Colt is to stallion as filly is to

1.a.Gelding

1.b.Mare

1.c.Pony

1.d.Foal

2.Stifle is to knee as hock is to

2.a.Toe

2.b.Hamstring

2.c.Ankle

2.d.Hip

3.Hay is to fiber as grain is to

3.a.Starch

3.b.Vitamins

3.c.Growth

3.d.Calories

4.Pawing is to colic as squinting is to

4.a.Bright light

4.b.Blindness

4.c.Cataracts

4.d.Eye Pain

Answer 2

1.B. In Thoroughbred racing terminology, a colt is a male horse four years old or younger and a filly is a female horse four or younger.

2.C. The parallels drawn here are between equine and human joints. In structure and function, the horse's stifle is roughly equal to the human knee, and the hock is the same as your ankle joint. The horse's "knee" is the same joint as your wrist, while the fetlock is the knuckle at the base of your middle digit.

3.A. Hay's roughage provides the bulk--in all senses--of the equine diet, while grain's carbohydrates furnish concentrated energy. Both hay and grain contribute vitamins and calories needed for maintenance and growth.

4.D. Pain is the provocation for both pawing and squinting, and a painful eye condition is as demanding of veterinary attention as a painful belly. Horses' slit-like pupils block out bright sunlight, so squinting indicates discomfort rather than a desire to control light.

Question 3 >



Question 3

Sure, you know how to use all the tack in your tack box, but do you know its history? Can you name the items whose histories are described below?

1.Thought to be the first item of tack developed, the original versions were probably woven from grass.

2.The earliest examples of this tack item have been found in frozen tombs of the Steppe nomads, dating between 500 and 400 B.C. Originally, the items probably served a dual purpose: protecting the horse and comforting the rider.

3.First recorded in use by the Celts of Gaul during the 4th century B.C., this item of tack was considered the most appropriate way to outfit a horse for the hunting field up until World War II.

Answer on next page >



Question 3

Sure, you know how to use all the tack in your tack box, but do you know its history? Can you name the items whose histories are described below?

1.Thought to be the first item of tack developed, the original versions were probably woven from grass.

2.The earliest examples of this tack item have been found in frozen tombs of the Steppe nomads, dating between 500 and 400 B.C. Originally, the items probably served a dual purpose: protecting the horse and comforting the rider.

3.First recorded in use by the Celts of Gaul during the 4th century B.C., this item of tack was considered the most appropriate way to outfit a horse for the hunting field up until World War II.

Answer 3

1.Halters. These horse-control devices likely originated as simple loops around the nose and possibly the poll. Loops around the lower jaw may have inspired the invention of bits made of harder material, such as horn or bone, which were introduced in approximately 2300 B.C.

2.Saddle pads. Elaborately embroidered specimens were found in the tombs near Pazyryk in the Altai Mountains of central Asia. Folded under the rider's seat to protect the horse's back when ridden, the pads may also have served as blankets to warm sleeping riders at night.

3.Curb bits. Until relatively recently, these leverage bits were standard equipment for all English riding. A popular phrase of the early 1900s sums up the attitude toward the use of any other bit: "There are three kinds of fools: the fool, the damn fool and the fool that hunts in a snaffle."

(Information for this quiz is from The Howell Book of Saddlery and Tack, edited by Elwyn Hartley-Edwards)

Question 4 >



Question 4

Vitamins sustain and regulate your horses' essential body functions. Sufficient quantities of these minor nutrients--minor because of the amount required, not because they are of minor significance--are either produced within the body or consumed in a quality roughage-based diet. Vitamins A, B1, E, H and K all work metabolic wonders; can you match each of the following actions with the correct vitamin?

1.Bone and muscle growth, reproductive functions and the production of rhodopsin, a pigment in the eye essential for night vision, all depend on this vitamin.

2.Also known as biotin, this vitamin is involved in fat, protein and glucose synthesis and in healthy hoof and hair growth.

3.This vitamin is critical to blood clotting and protein activation.

4.As an antioxidant, this vitamin protects body tissues by binding to cell-destroying free oxygen radicals.

5.Normal carbohydrate metabolism and nerve function require this vitamin.

Answer on next page >



Question 4

Vitamins sustain and regulate your horses' essential body functions. Sufficient quantities of these minor nutrients--minor because of the amount required, not because they are of minor significance--are either produced within the body or consumed in a quality roughage-based diet. Vitamins A, B1, E, H and K all work metabolic wonders; can you match each of the following actions with the correct vitamin?

1.Bone and muscle growth, reproductive functions and the production of rhodopsin, a pigment in the eye essential for night vision, all depend on this vitamin.

2.Also known as biotin, this vitamin is involved in fat, protein and glucose synthesis and in healthy hoof and hair growth.

3.This vitamin is critical to blood clotting and protein activation.

4.As an antioxidant, this vitamin protects body tissues by binding to cell-destroying free oxygen radicals.

5.Normal carbohydrate metabolism and nerve function require this vitamin.

Answer 4

1.Vitamin A

2.Vitamin H

3.Vitamin K

4.Vitamin E

1.Vitamin B1

Question 5 >



Question 5

Turn your horse out after a good workout and chances are he'll drop to the ground with a satisfying grunt, then roll with leg-flailing delight. It's fun to watch and probably even more fun to do, but is there anything besides entertainment at stake? Which of the following statements about rolling are true, and which are false?

1.Rolling is purely a recreational activity.

2.The ability to roll all the way over is a reliable sign of athleticism.

3.Rolling can twist a horse's intestine, causing or complicating colic.

4.Horses prefer to roll in the muddiest patches of ground.

Answer on next page >



Question 5

Turn your horse out after a good workout and chances are he'll drop to the ground with a satisfying grunt, then roll with leg-flailing delight. It's fun to watch and probably even more fun to do, but is there anything besides entertainment at stake? Which of the following statements about rolling are true, and which are false?

1.Rolling is purely a recreational activity.

2.The ability to roll all the way over is a reliable sign of athleticism.

3.Rolling can twist a horse's intestine, causing or complicating colic.

4.Horses prefer to roll in the muddiest patches of ground.

Answer 5

All of the statements are ,strong>false.

1.Horses certainly enjoy a good roll, but rolling is more than a feel-good behavior. A vigorous roll scratches otherwise unreachable itches, dries sweaty haircoats to reduce chill, massages tired muscles, speeds shedding and coats the horse with a dusty bug barrier.

2.Horse-trading cowboys may have added $5 to the selling price for each time a horse made the whole roll, but that ability has no direct correlation with athleticism. Of course, older, stiffer horses probably do have a harder time mustering the energy to heave themselves over their protruding withers.

3.Rolling does not twist horses' intestines. Instead, the pain of an already-twisted intestine can induce violent rolling. Colicking horses who are on the ground thrashing in pain, indeed, may injure themselves, but "quiet" colickers who want to lie down can safely be allowed to do so.

4.You may believe your horse wants to wallow in the mud, but his preference is actually guided by the need for an open, debris-free space, usually with a slight roughness to the soil. If that spot also happens to be muddy, so be it. Pastured herds tend to gravitate to a favored rolling spot, which frequent use keeps grassless and good and gritty.

Question 6 >



Question 6

You may not know the word for it, but if you've spent any time around horses you've seen the strange display: The horse suddenly stretches his head and neck upward and curls his upper lip to reveal his teeth. This behavior is called flehmen, a German term pronounced "flay-men," and horses perform it for one clear purpose. Which of the following describes that reason?

a.A "mating call" of sorts for stallions and confused geldings to voice their intentions to mares in the area.

b.The horse's way of laughing at the silly things we humans do.

c.A method for getting a good sniff of particularly interesting or unusual odors.

d.A means of signaling dominance in the herd.

Answer on next page >



Question 6

You may not know the word for it, but if you've spent any time around horses you've seen the strange display: The horse suddenly stretches his head and neck upward and curls his upper lip to reveal his teeth. This behavior is called flehmen, a German term pronounced "flay-men," and horses perform it for one clear purpose. Which of the following describes that reason?

a.A "mating call" of sorts for stallions and confused geldings to voice their intentions to mares in the area.

b.The horse's way of laughing at the silly things we humans do.

c.A method for getting a good sniff of particularly interesting or unusual odors.

d.A means of signaling dominance in the herd.

Answer 6

C. The flehmen maneuver helps the horse direct odors to his vomeronasal organ, located at the top of the nasal passages. The lip curl closes off the nostrils temporarily to block out competing smells. Some individuals flehmen much more than others, but all horses do it to investigate new or unusual smells. Whether the odor is offensive or pleasant seems to have no bearing on its ability to provoke the behavior. Although stallions flehmen more often than other horses because the scents of mares are of particular interest to them, the curling lip is not, after all, a form of come-hither flirting.

Question 7 >



Question 7

There are as many methods for cleaning tack as there are horse owners wielding sponges, but some common leather-care practices are based on incorrect assumptions. Which of the following statements about leather are myth and which are fact?

1.Plain water is an excellent tack-cleaning substance.

2.Oiling a new saddle or bridle helps break it in.

3.Neat's-foot oil rots the stitching of tack.

4.Squeaking sounds are a sign your tack needs cleaning

Answer on next page >



Question 7

There are as many methods for cleaning tack as there are horse owners wielding sponges, but some common leather-care practices are based on incorrect assumptions. Which of the following statements about leather are myth and which are fact?

1.Plain water is an excellent tack-cleaning substance.

2.Oiling a new saddle or bridle helps break it in.

3.Neat's-foot oil rots the stitching of tack.

4.Squeaking sounds are a sign your tack needs cleaning

Answer 7

1.Fact. It's never a good idea to get tack soaking wet, but going over it with a slightly damp cloth after every use is one of the best things you can do for your leather. If you faithfully wipe away sweat before it dries, you won't need to clean and condition leather until it begins to feel dry or gets really grimy.

2.Myth. New leather has enough oil in it to be used immediately. In fact, adding oil to brand-new tack may make it so pliable that it stretches and breaks. The best way to condition new tack is to go ahead and use it.

3.Myth. Neat's-foot oil, an extract of cattle hooves, is a very safe leather dressing. It's neat's-foot oil compound, which is formulated with petroleum products, that can rot stitching. Read the product label carefully to distinguish the good neat's-foot from the bad.

4.Myth. A noisy saddle isn't necessarily a dirty one. In fact, most saddle squeaks arise in nearly new gear. The annoying sound is caused by two pieces of leather rubbing together. Time solves much of the problem, but a dusting of baby powder between panels also helps silence the squeaks.

Question 8 >



Question 8

Sure, your horse loves it as a treat, but sugar has more than snack value around the barn. Which of the following applications is the genuine "serious" use of the sweet stuff?

a.Mixed with bleach and brushed on the hoof to prevent thrush and white line disease.

b.Packed into a wrapped wound to ward off infection.

c.Made into a paste with iodine and rubbed onto the skin to reduce sarcoids.

d.Sprinkled onto stall floors to neutralize the ammonia smell of urine.

Answer on next page >



Question 8

Sure, your horse loves it as a treat, but sugar has more than snack value around the barn. Which of the following applications is the genuine "serious" use of the sweet stuff?

a.Mixed with bleach and brushed on the hoof to prevent thrush and white line disease.

b.Packed into a wrapped wound to ward off infection.

c.Made into a paste with iodine and rubbed onto the skin to reduce sarcoids.

d.Sprinkled onto stall floors to neutralize the ammonia smell of urine.

Answer 8

B. Sugar has several properties that make it useful in wound treatment. For starters, it inhibits bacterial growth. It also is a drawing agent, pulling fluid from swollen tissues, thus helping the wound clean itself from inside out. Finally, when mixed with the exudates from a wound, it becomes a lubricant, keeping regenerating tissues moist to help prevent scarring.

Of course, sugar is no substitute for thorough scrubbing with saline solution, but packing a spoonful (or two) of sugar on a cleaned but still-inflamed wound may be beneficial. After applying the sugar, cover the area securely to keep flies away. Change the dressing daily. In two or three days, the swelling should have subsided, leaving the wound in condition for smooth healing.

(Warning: The other uses in the wrong quiz answers are neither tested nor recommended.)

Question 9 >



Question 9

So you know horses inside and out-at least the major organs and parts. Now it's time to test your mastery of the finer points of anatomy. Match the specific feature with its general location.

1.Corpora nigra

2.Periople

3.Jejunum

4.Sinoatrial nod

a.Intestine

b.Hoof

c.Heart

d.Eye

Answer on next page >



Question 9

So you know horses inside and out-at least the major organs and parts. Now it's time to test your mastery of the finer points of anatomy. Match the specific feature with its general location.

1.Corpora nigra

2.Periople

3.Jejunum

4.Sinoatrial nod

a.Intestine

b.Hoof

c.Heart

d.Eye

Answer 9

1.D. The corpora nigra is an irregular awning-like projection of the upper margin of the iris suspended above the horse's pupil, probably to screen excess light from the retina.

2.B. The wax-like periople covers the hoof wall to help seal in moisture.

3.A. The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine.

4.C. The sinoatrial node, a collection of nerves located in the wall of the upper-right heart chamber, acts like a pacemaker to keep the organ contracting rhythmically.

Question 10 >



Question 10

With a nod to a popular television game show and its host, put the following horse-care items in the order of their invention, starting with the earliest--and are you sure that's your final answer?

a.Synthetic dewormers

b.Fly spray

c.Equine vaccines

d.Self-adhesive bandage

Answer on next page >



Question 10

With a nod to a popular television game show and its host, put the following horse-care items in the order of their invention, starting with the earliest--and are you sure that's your final answer?

a.Synthetic dewormers

b.Fly spray

c.Equine vaccines

d.Self-adhesive bandage

Answer 10

C, A, B, D. The tetanus vaccine was available for horses by the early 1920s. Equine-specific dewormers were used by veterinarians in the early 1930s, although owner-administered products weren't available until the 1960s. Fly sprays were developed in the 1940s, primarily for dairies, but their use quickly spread to horses. Self-adhesive bandages appeared in veterinary kits in the 1960s.

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